Alternatives & Special Cases

National Average EUI and LPD

This table displays the Baseline and Goal Energy Use Intensity (EUI) for whole building projects and the Lighting Power Density (LPD) values for interior-only projects for each use type currently included in the DDx. 

 

The values displayed in the table potentially appear in different locations within the DDx, including, but not limited to:

 

  • General Inputs: Section 1: Use Types Table [Non-Residential, Residential and Interior-Only]: When a use type and area is selected, the corresponding values appear in a table to the right for reference while project details are input.

 

  • General Inputs: Section 3: DEFINE BASELINE: National Average [Non-Residential, Residential Whole Building]: When the "National Average" DEFINE BASELINE approach is selected, the corresponding values for the use type will appear in the BASELINE and GOAL fields.

 

  • General Inputs: Section 3: DEFINE BASELINE: National Average [Interior-Only]: When the "National Average" DEFINE BASELINE approach is selected, the corresponding values for the use type will appear in the BASELINE and GOAL fields.

 

BASELINE EUI

 

 

GOAL EUI (2015)

BASELINE LPD

GOAL LPD

 

kBtu/sf/yr

 

 

kBtu/sf/yr

W/sf

W/sf

 

 

Source

70%

 

25%

AIA 2030 COMMITMENT SET

Use Types

U.S. National Average Site EUI

2003 CBECS Average*

Other

Architecture 2030 Challenge

Site EUI

LPD max. allowance per ANSI/ASHRAE/ IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 Table 9.5.1

AIA 2030 Challenge LPD

Bank/Financial Institution

77

X

 

23.1

1

0.8

Courthouse

118

X

 

35.4

1.2

0.9

Data Center

NA

 

 

NA

1

0.8

Education - College/University (campus-level)

120

X

 

36

1.2

0.9

Education - General

76

X

 

22.8

1.2

0.9

Education - K-12 School

75

X

 

22.5

1.2

0.9

Food Sales - Convenience Store

(w/ or w/out gas station)

241

X

 

72.3

1.5

1.1

Food Sales - General

225

X

 

67.5

1.5

1.1

Food Sales - Supermarket/Grocery

213

X

 

63.9

1.5

1.1

Food Service - Fast Food

534

X

 

160.2

1.5

1.1

Food Service - General

351

X

 

105.3

1.5

1.1

Food Service - Restaurant/Cafeteria

302

X

 

90.6

1.5

1.1

Health Care - Clinic

84

X

 

25.2

1

0.8

Health Care - Hospital Inpatient

227

X

 

68.1

1.2

0.9

Health Care - Medical Office

59

X

 

17.7

1

0.8

Health Care - Nursing/Assisted Living

124

X

 

37.2

1

0.8

Health Care - Outpatient - General

73

X

 

21.9

1.2

0.9

Laboratory

370

 

Labs21

111

1.4

1.1

Lodging - General

87

X

 

26.1

1

0.8

Lodging - Hotel/Motel

94

X

 

28.2

1

0.8

Lodging - Residence Hall/Dormitory

89

X

 

26.7

1

0.8

Mixed-Use

78.8

ES

 

23.6

1

0.8

Office - Small ( < 10,000 sf)

74

X**

 

22.2

1

0.8

Office - Medium (< 100,000 sf)

90

X**

 

27

1

0.8

Office - Large

104

X**

 

31.2

1

0.8

Other

78.8

ES

 

23.6

0.7

0.5

Public Assembly - Entertainment/Culture

95

X

 

28.5

1.6

1.2

Public Assembly - General

66

X

 

19.8

1.1

0.8

Public Assembly - Library

104

X

 

31.2

1.3

1

Public Assembly - Recreation

65

X

 

19.5

1.1

0.8

Public Assembly - Social/Meeting

52

X

 

15.6

1.2

0.9

Public Safety - Fire/Police Station

78

X

 

23.4

1

0.8

Public Safety - General

90

X

 

27

1

0.8

Religious Worship

46

X

 

13.8

1.3

1

Residential - Mobile Homes

73.4

 

RECS

22

0.7

0.5

Residential - Multi-Family, 2 to 4 units

58.2

 

RECS

17.5

0.7

0.5

Residential - Multi-Family, 5 or more units

49.5

 

RECS

14.9

0.7

0.5

Residential - Single-Family Attached

43.7

 

RECS

13.1

0.7

0.5

Residential - Single-Family Detached

43.8

 

RECS

13.1

0.7

0.5

Residential - Mid-Rise/HIgh-Rise

78.8

ES

 

23.6

0.7

0.5

Retail - Mall

107

X

 

32.1

1.5

1.1

Retail - Non-mall, Vehicle Dealerships, misc.

82

X

 

24.6

1.5

1.1

Retail Store

72

X

 

21.6

1.5

1.1

Service

(vehicle repair/service, postal service)

77

X

 

23.1

1.4

1.1

Storage - Distribution/Shipping Center

44

X

 

13.2

0.8

0.6

Storage - General

26

X

 

7.8

0.8

0.6

Storage - Non-refrigerated warehouse

31

X

 

9.3

0.8

0.6

Storage - Refrigerated warehouse

127

X

 

38.1

0.8

0.6

Warehouse - Self-storage

4

X

 

1.2

0.8

0.6

* CBECS (Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey) Average calculated as the arithmetic mean of reported EUIs across all survey buildings of the given type. 

** CBECS averages weighted by square footage, within size groups.

 

 

International Projects

Baselines in the DDx are derived from US- and Canada-specific building data. A typical baseline is a national or regional median or average Site EUI. Each tool will have a different approach for defining the baseline. For instance, ENERGY STAR Target Finder is based on National Median Site EUI, normalized for climate, weather, space type, building size, occupancy, and schedule. ENERGY STAR Target Finder’s underlying dataset is CBECS 2003. In other cases, tools for unique use types (e.g., Labs21 for laboratories) generate Average/Median Site EUIs based on independently created databases.

One of the challenges with baselining international work against U.S. buildings is that often times the performance often looks very different internationally. It is one reason why it is so important to do energy modeling and track the pEUI instead of focusing too closely on percent savings over the baseline. However, if the project is outside of the US/Canada, there are a couple of recommended approaches to set baselines. 

  1. Use a climate zone equivalent US zip code; see reference table below. 

  2. Use the Edge tool or other country-specific data about building energy performance in 2003 (and input as “Other”).

Climate zone equivalent US zip code 

Once the equivalent zip code has been determined it can be entered in the zip/postal code field in General Inputs, Section 1 for the project. The zip code entered will be used for the ENERGY STAR Target Finder calculation for the Baseline EUI, when Target Finder is selected as the Define Baseline Approach in Section 3. It will also be the basis for the Source and Emissions factors and calculations, if inputs are provided in that section.

Reference Table:  International Location to US Equivalent Zip Code

For international locations, review table for the country and/or city. Scanning the across the row, the climate zone and the US equivalent city and state are identified. The last column displays the US equivalent zip code, which is the value that should be entered in the zip/postal code field on the DDx to enable the ENERGY STAR Target Finder calculation for use types that are available.

 

Continent

Country

City

Climate Zone

Sub-Zone

US Equivalent City

US Equivalent State

US Equivalent Zip Code

Africa

Senegal

Dakar

1

B

 

 

no comp

Africa

Egypt

Cairo/Giza

2

B

Phoenix

AZ

85004

Africa

Kenya

Nairobi

3

C

San Francisco

CA

94109

Africa

South Africa

Johannesburg

4

B

Albuquerque

NM

87102

Africa

Tunisia

Tunis

3

B

Las Vegas

NV

89101

Asia

China

Beijing

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

Asia

China

Chengdu/Chongqing

3

A

Memphis

TN

38104

Asia

China

Guangzhou

2

A

Houston

TX

77010

Asia

China

Hainan

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

China

Harbin

7

-

Duluth

MN

55806

Asia

China

Hong Kong

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

China

Shanghai/Nanjing

3

A

Memphis

TN

38104

Asia

China

Shenyang

6

A

Minneapolis

MN

55402

Asia

China

Urumqi

6

A

Minneapolis

MN

55402

Asia

China

Wuhan

3

A

Memphis

TN

38104

Asia

China

Xi'an

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

Asia

China

Yumen

6

B

Helena

MT

59601

Asia

Guam

Hagatna

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

India

Bangalore

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

India

Cochin

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

India

Delhi

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

India

Hyberabad

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

India

Kolkata

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

India

Mumbai

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

Indonesia

Jakarta

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

Israel

Jerusalem

3

A

Miami

FL

30301

Asia

Japan

Tokyo

3

A

Miami

FL

30301

Asia

Jordan

Amman

3

B

Las Vegas

NV

89101

Asia

Korea

Seoul

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

Asia

Kuwait

Kuwait City

1

B

 

 

None

Asia

Malaysia

Kuala Lumpur

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

Philippines

Manila

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

Qatar

Doha

1

B

 

 

None

Asia

Saudi Arabia

Jeddah

1

B

 

 

None

Asia

Saudi Arabia

Riyadh

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

Singapore

Singapore

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

Taiwan

Taipei

2

A

Houston

TX

77010

Asia

Thailand

Bangkok

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

Turkey

Istanbul

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

Asia

United Arab Emirates

Abu Dhabi/Dubai

1

B

 

 

None

Asia

Vietnam

Hanoi

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

Vietnam

Ho Chi Minh City

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Australia

Australia

Melbourne

3

A

Memphis

TN

38104

Australia

Australia

Perth

3

B

Las Vegas

NV

89101

Australia

Australia

Sydney

3

A

Memphis

TN

38104

Europe

Austria

Vienna (Wiener Neustadt)

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

Europe

Belgium

Brussels

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

Europe

Bulgaria

Sophia

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

Europe

France

Marseille

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

Europe

France

Paris

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

Europe

Germany

Berlin

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

Europe

Germany

Frankfurt

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

Europe

Germany

Munich

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

Europe

Ireland

Dublin

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

Europe

Italy

Rome

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

Europe

Italy

Syracuse

3

A

Miami

FL

30301

Europe

Italy

Milan

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

Europe

Norway

Oslo

6

A

Minneapolis

MN

55402

Europe

Portugal

Lisbon

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

Europe

Russia

Moscow

6

A

Minneapolis

MN

55402

Europe

Russia

St. Petersburg

7

-

Minneapolis

MN

55806

Europe

Switzerland

Zurich

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

Europe

United Kingdom

Belfast

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

Europe

United Kingdom

Edinburgh

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

Europe

United Kingdom

London

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

Europe

United Kingdom

Manchester

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

N. America

Bahamas

Nassau

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

N. America

Costa Rica

San Jose (Juan Santamaria Int)

2

A

Houston

TX

77010

N. America

El Salvador/ Guatemala

San Salvador (Guatemala)

2

A

Houston

TX

77010

N. America

Haiti/Dominican Republic

Port-au-Prince (Santo Domingo)

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

N. America

Mexico

Acapulco (Puerto Vallarta)

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

N. America

Mexico

Cabo (Puerto Vallarta)

1

B

 

 

None

N. America

Mexico

Cancun

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

N. America

Mexico

Mexico City

3

B

Las Vegas

NV

89101

N. America

Mexico

Monterrey

3

B

Las Vegas

NV

89101

N. America

Mexico

Oaxaca (Guanajuato)

3

A

Memphis

TN

38104

N. America

Mexico

Puerto Vallarta

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

N. America

Mexico

Veracruz

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

N. America

Nicaragua

Managua

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

N. America

Panama

Panama City (Marcos A Gelabert I)

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

N. America

Puerto Rico

San Juan

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

S. America

Argentina

Buenos Aires

3

A

Memphis

TN

38104

S. America

Brazil

Brasilia

2

A

Houston

TX

77010

S. America

Brazil

Rio de Janeiro

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

S. America

Brazil

Sao Paulo

2

A

Houston

TX

77010

S. America

Chile

Santiago

4

C

Seattle

WA

98181

S. America

Columbia

Cartagena

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

S. America

Peru

Lima

2

B

Phoenix

AZ

85004

Edge Tool or other country-specific data

The World Bank International Finance Corporation’s EDGE certification program provides a free database of building benchmarking data for over 130 countries. This resource can help to more accurately benchmark international work. More information about the EDGE methodology can be found here

  • Go to EDGE and determine if the project’s country is available.

  • If the country and the use type are available in EDGE, select Other in the Define Baseline section in the DDx. Enter the baseline from EDGE.

  • If the country or the use type is not available in EDGE:

    1. Refer to AIA’s International Location To US Equivalent Zip Code table below to select the correct US zip code. Follow the steps for baselining US/Canada projects.

Projects in Canada

Canada has a robust public database of operational building energy use (Natural Resources Canada Office of Energy Efficiency’s Commercial and Institutional Consumption of Energy Survey, or CICES). Architecture 2030 provides ‘Canadian Target Tables’ which summarize relevant CICES data. 

Note: to convert from GJ/m2 to kBtu/sf, multiply by 88.06. (1 GJ = 947.8171 kBtu; 1 m2 = 10.7639 sf)

Reference Table:  International Location to US Equivalent Zip Code

For international locations, review table for the country and/or city. Scanning the across the row, the climate zone and the US equivalent city and state are identified. The last column displays the US equivalent zip code, which is the value that should be entered in the zip/postal code field on the DDx to enable the ENERGY STAR Target Finder calculation for use types that are available.

 

Continent

Country

City

Climate Zone

Sub-Zone

US Equivalent City

US Equivalent State

US Equivalent Zip Code

Africa

Senegal

Dakar

1

B

 

 

no comp

Africa

Egypt

Cairo/Giza

2

B

Phoenix

AZ

85004

Africa

Kenya

Nairobi

3

C

San Francisco

CA

94109

Africa

South Africa

Johannesburg

4

B

Albuquerque

NM

87102

Africa

Tunisia

Tunis

3

B

Las Vegas

NV

89101

Asia

China

Beijing

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

Asia

China

Chengdu/Chongqing

3

A

Memphis

TN

38104

Asia

China

Guangzhou

2

A

Houston

TX

77010

Asia

China

Hainan

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

China

Harbin

7

-

Duluth

MN

55806

Asia

China

Hong Kong

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

China

Shanghai/Nanjing

3

A

Memphis

TN

38104

Asia

China

Shenyang

6

A

Minneapolis

MN

55402

Asia

China

Urumqi

6

A

Minneapolis

MN

55402

Asia

China

Wuhan

3

A

Memphis

TN

38104

Asia

China

Xi'an

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

Asia

China

Yumen

6

B

Helena

MT

59601

Asia

Guam

Hagatna

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

India

Bangalore

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

India

Cochin

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

India

Delhi

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

India

Hyberabad

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

India

Kolkata

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

India

Mumbai

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

Indonesia

Jakarta

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

Israel

Jerusalem

3

A

Miami

FL

30301

Asia

Japan

Tokyo

3

A

Miami

FL

30301

Asia

Jordan

Amman

3

B

Las Vegas

NV

89101

Asia

Korea

Seoul

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

Asia

Kuwait

Kuwait City

1

B

 

 

None

Asia

Malaysia

Kuala Lumpur

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

Philippines

Manila

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

Qatar

Doha

1

B

 

 

None

Asia

Saudi Arabia

Jeddah

1

B

 

 

None

Asia

Saudi Arabia

Riyadh

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

Singapore

Singapore

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

Taiwan

Taipei

2

A

Houston

TX

77010

Asia

Thailand

Bangkok

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

Turkey

Istanbul

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

Asia

United Arab Emirates

Abu Dhabi/Dubai

1

B

 

 

None

Asia

Vietnam

Hanoi

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Asia

Vietnam

Ho Chi Minh City

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

Australia

Australia

Melbourne

3

A

Memphis

TN

38104

Australia

Australia

Perth

3

B

Las Vegas

NV

89101

Australia

Australia

Sydney

3

A

Memphis

TN

38104

Europe

Austria

Vienna (Wiener Neustadt)

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

Europe

Belgium

Brussels

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

Europe

Bulgaria

Sophia

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

Europe

France

Marseille

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

Europe

France

Paris

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

Europe

Germany

Berlin

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

Europe

Germany

Frankfurt

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

Europe

Germany

Munich

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

Europe

Ireland

Dublin

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

Europe

Italy

Rome

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

Europe

Italy

Syracuse

3

A

Miami

FL

30301

Europe

Italy

Milan

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

Europe

Norway

Oslo

6

A

Minneapolis

MN

55402

Europe

Portugal

Lisbon

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

Europe

Russia

Moscow

6

A

Minneapolis

MN

55402

Europe

Russia

St. Petersburg

7

-

Minneapolis

MN

55806

Europe

Switzerland

Zurich

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

Europe

United Kingdom

Belfast

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

Europe

United Kingdom

Edinburgh

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

Europe

United Kingdom

London

4

A

Baltimore

MD

21202

Europe

United Kingdom

Manchester

5

A

Chicago

IL

60602

N. America

Bahamas

Nassau

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

N. America

Costa Rica

San Jose (Juan Santamaria Int)

2

A

Houston

TX

77010

N. America

El Salvador/ Guatemala

San Salvador (Guatemala)

2

A

Houston

TX

77010

N. America

Haiti/Dominican Republic

Port-au-Prince (Santo Domingo)

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

N. America

Mexico

Acapulco (Puerto Vallarta)

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

N. America

Mexico

Cabo (Puerto Vallarta)

1

B

 

 

None

N. America

Mexico

Cancun

1

A

Miami

FL

33130

N. America

Mexico

Mexico City

3

B

Las Vegas

NV

89101

N. America

Mexico

Monterrey

3

B

Las Vegas

NV

89101

N. America